The Etymology of the Kurdish words  (حوشتر hushtr  camel), (هێستر hester horse), (هه رس  hars bear)

No doubt these Kurdish words hit one in the eye with their similar sounds and suggest one origin. The PIE (usr) Latin (urus) extinct wild bull might be related to Kurdish (هه رس hars) bear, French ours and the Kurdish (hestr هێستر), Proto-Germanic harss, English horse, German Ross. The Indo-Iranian (ushra) camel, Pashto (ush) could be from the same origin. Another Indo-Iranian word is Avestic (ushtra) camel, OPers (usha-bara) camel borne, Persian (shtr شتر ) Kurdish (hushtr حوشتر ).

This change in meaning from bull to camel is believed to be due to the disappearance of aurochs and the need to name a new animal probably influenced by Sem. Languages such as Akkadian (urtru) dromedary if these words are not loans from Iranian. Another Arabic word  referring  to a ruminating animal or any cloven-hoofed animal (see Edward Lane), a camel is the word (اجتر ijtarra) to ruminate which appears as  (اشتر ishtarra) since the sh and j are from one place of utterance. Thus the Kurdish word hushtir حوشتر could be a loan.

However, the Indo-Iranian data  suggests the meaning (useful one, working) for ushtra relating it to OHG ustri industry see also (industrious) hard-working, functioning. The PIE roots and the Kurdish words (هه رس hars bear, هێستر hester horse and حوشتر hushtr camel) suggest that the names of wild animals of different kinds go back to a root sounding like (ars/urs /hers) making the Semitic origin of Kurdish     حوشتر hushtr very unlikely. The camel is still found in some areas in Iran, Afganistan and India.


Bremen, 6 January 2019